Learn to Fly with AeroTransport's FREE On-line Edition of the

Canadian Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautics


TABLE of CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT:

FORCES ACTING ON THE AIRPLANE IN FLIGHT 1-1
Terms and Definitions
The Four Forces
Lift
Gravity (Weight)
Thrust
Drag
Induced Drag
Parasite Drag
Relationship Between Angle of Attack and Lift
Relationship of Thrust and Drag in Straight-and-Level Flight
Relationship Between Lift and Weight in Straight-and-Level Flight
Factors Affecting Lift and Drag
Effect of Wing Area on Lift and Drag
Effect of Airfoil Shape on Lift and Drag
Effect of Wing Design on Stall
Effect of Airspeed on Lift and Drag
Effect of Air Density on Lift and Drag

TURNING TENDENCIES 1-9

Torque
Slipstream
Gyroscopic Precession
Asymmetric Propeller Loading ("P" Factor)
Corrections for Turning Tendency or Torque During Flight

AIRPLANE STABILITY 1-11

Positive Stability
Neutral Stability
Negative Stability
Elements of Stability: The Basic Movements

The Pitch Movement:


The Roll Movement:
The Yaw Movement:

LOADS AND LOAD FACTORS 1-17

Load Factors and Airplane Design
Effect of Turns on Load Factor
Effect of Load Factor on Stalling Speed
Effect of Speed on Load Factor
Effect of Flight Maneuvers on Load Factor
Effect of Turbulence on Load Factor
Determining Load Factors in Flight
Forces Acting on the Airplane when at Airspeeds Slower than Cruise
Forces in a Climb
Forces in a Glide
Turns During Flight

CHAPTER 2 AIRPLANE STRUCTURE AND ENGINES:

AIRPLANE STRUCTURE 2-1

FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS 2-1

Wing Flaps
Landing Gear
Conventional Landing Gear
Tricycle Landing Gear

THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 2-3

ENGINE OPERATION 2-5

How an Engine Operates
Cooling System
Ignition System
Fuel System
Fuel Tanks, Selectors, Strainers, and Drains
Fuel Primer
Fuel Pressure Gauge
Induction, Carburetion, and Injection Systems
Carburetor System
Mixture Control
Carburetor Icing
Conditions Conducive to Carburetor Icing
Indications of Carburetor Icing
Use of Carburetor Heat
Carburetor Air Temperature Gauge
Outside Air Temperature Gauge
Fuel Injection System
Proper Fuel is Essential
Fuel Contamination
Refueling Procedures
Oil System

THE PROPELLER 2-14

Fixed-Pitch Propeller
Controllable-Pitch Propellers

THE ENGINE:

STARTING THE ENGINE 2-17

Engines Equipped with a Starter
Engines Not Equipped with a Starter
Idling the Engine During Flight

EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE GAUGE 2-18

AIRCRAFT DOCUMENTS, MAINTENANCE, AND INSPECTIONS 2-18

Aircraft Owner Responsibilities
Certificate of Aircraft Registration
Airworthiness Certificate
Flight Authority
Aircraft Maintenance
Inspections:
Annual Inspection
100-Hour Inspection
Other Inspection Programs
Preflight Inspection
Preventive Maintenance
Repairs and Alterations
Deferred Repair
Special Flight Permits
Airworthiness Directives

CHAPTER 3 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS:

THE PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM AND ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTS 3-1
Impact Pressure Chamber and Lines
Static Pressure Chamber and Lines
Altimeter
Principle of Operation
Effect of Nonstandard Pressure and Temperature
Setting the Altimeter
Types of Altitude
Vertical Speed Indicator
Principle of Operation
Airspeed Indicator
Kinds of Airspeed
Indicated Airspeed
Calibrated Airspeed
True Airspeed
Airspeed Indicator Markings
The Integrated Flight Display
Other Airspeed Limitations

COMPUTERIZED AIRCRFAFT 3-5

The Integrated Flight Display

GYROSCOPIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS 3-6

Sources of Power for Gyroscopic Operation
Vacuum or Pressure System
Engine-Driven Vacuum Pump
Gyroscopic Principles
Turn Coordinator
The Heading Indicator
The Attitude Indicator

MAGNETIC COMPASS 3-10

Compass Errors
Variation
Deviation
Using the Magnetic Compass
Compass Errors

CHAPTER 4 WEIGHT AND BALANCE and AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE:

WEIGHT CONTROL 4-1
Effects of Weight Weight Changes

BALANCE, STABILITY, AND CENTER OF GRAVITY 4-2

Effects of Adverse Balance
Management of Weight and Balance Control
Terms and Definitions
Control of LoadingGeneral Aviation Airplanes
Basic Principles of Weight and Balance Computations
Weight and Balance Restrictions

DETERMINING LOADED WEIGHT AND CENTER OF GRAVITY 4-6

Computational Method
Graph Method
Table Method
Shifting, Adding, and Removing Weight
Weight Shifting
Weight Addition or Removal

AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE 4-10

Density Altitude
Effect of Density Altitude on Engine Power and Propeller Efficiency
Humidity
Effect of Wind on Airplane Performance
Runway Surface Condition and Gradient
Ground Effect
Use of Performance Charts
Interpolation
Performance Charts
Density Altitude Charts
Takeoff Data Charts
Climb and Cruise Performance Data
Landing Performance Data
Combined Graphs

CHAPTER 5 WEATHER:

WEATHER OBSERVATIONS 5-1
Surface Aviation Weather Observations
Upper Air Observations
Radar Observation

WEATHER SERVICE OUTLETS 5-2

The Nav Canada Flight Service Station (FSS)
Pilot's Automatic Telephone Weather Answering System
Transcribed Information Briefing Service
Direct User Access Terminal Service
Transcribed Weather Broadcast
The Internet

WEATHER BRIEFING 5-2

Standard Briefing
Abbreviated Briefing
Outlook Briefing

NATURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE 5-3

Oxygen and the Human Body
Significance of Atmospheric Pressure
Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure
Effect of Altitude on Atmospheric Pressure
Effect of Altitude on Flight
Effect of Differences in Air Density
Measuring Pressure
Wind

THE CAUSE OF ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION 5-6

Wind Patterns
Convection Currents
Effect of Obstructions on Wind
Low-Level Wind Shear
Wind and Pressure Representation on Surface Weather Maps

MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE 5-14

Relative Humidity
Temperature/Dewpoint Relationship
Methods by Which Air Reaches the Saturation Point
Effect of Temperature on Air Density
Effect of Temperature on Flight
Effect of High Humidity on Air Density
Effect of High Humidity on Flight
Dew and Frost
Fog
Clouds
Ceiling
Visibility
Precipitation

AIR MASSES AND FRONTS 5-19

Warm Front
Flight Toward an Approaching Warm Front
Cold Front
Fast-Moving Cold Fronts
Flight Toward an Approaching Cold Front
Comparison of Cold Fronts with Warm Fronts
Wind Shifts
Occluded Front

AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS and FORECASTS 5-25

Aviation Weather Reports:
Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METAR)
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPS)
Radar Weather Reports (RAREPs)
In-Flight Weather Advisories
Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET)
Aviation Forecasts:
Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)
Graphic Area Forecast (GFA)
Winds and Temperatures Aloft Forecast (FD)
Weather Charts
Surface Analysis Chart
Satellite Information
Graphic Area Forecast

CHAPTER 6 AIRPORT OPERATIONS:

TYPES OF AIRPORTS 6-1
Controlled Airport
Uncontrolled Airport

SOURCES FOR AIRPORT DATA 6-1

Aeronautical Charts
Canada Flight Supplement
Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs)

AIRPORT MARKINGS AND SIGNS 6-3

Runway Markings
Taxiway Markings
Other Markings
Airport Signs

AIRPORT LIGHTING 6-4

Airport Beacon
Approach Light Systems
Visual Glideslope Indicators
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)
Other Glidepath Systems
Runway Lighting
Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL)
Runway Edge Lights
In-Runway Lighting
Control of Airport Lighting
Taxiway Lights
Obstruction Lights

WIND DIRECTION INDICATORS 6-8

RADIO COMMUNICATIONS 6-8

Radio License
Radio Equipment
Radio Procedures
Lost Communication Procedures

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES 6-11

Primary Radar
Air Traffic Control Secondary Surveillance Radar
Transponder
Radar Traffic Information Service

WAKE TURBULENCE 6-13

Vortex Generation
Vortex Strength
Vortex Behavior
Vortex Avoidance Procedures

COLLISION AVOIDANCE 6-13

Right of Way

THE TRAFFIC CIRCUIT 6-14

Joining the Circuit
Traffic Clearing Procedures

CHAPTER 7 CANADIAN AIRSPACE:

CANADIAN AIRSPACE STRUCTURE 7-1

CONTROLLED AIRSPACE 7-2

Class A Airspace
Class B Airspace
Class C Airspace
Class D Airspace
Class E Airspace

UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE 7-5

Class F Airspace (Advisory & Warning)
Military
Training
Hanglider Ops
Parachuting
Forest Fires

Class G Airspace

TRANSPONDERS IN CONTROLLED AIRSPACE 7-7

BASIC VFR WEATHER MINIMA 7-8

VFR ENROUTE PROCEDURES 7-9

Use of 126.7
VFR Crusing Altitudes
Minimum altitudes

PILOT LICENCING 7-9

Recency of Experience
The Night Rating
VFR-over-The-Top (VFR-OTT)

CHAPTER 8 NAVIGATION:

AERONAUTICAL CHARTS 8-1
Sectional Charts
Visual Flight Rule (VFR) Terminal Area Charts
World Aeronautical Charts
Canada Flight Supplement

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE (MERIDIANS AND PARALLELS) 8-3

Time Zones
Measurement of Direction
Variation
Deviation

EFFECT OF WIND 8-7

BASIC CALCULATIONS 8-8

Converting Minutes to Equivalent Hours
Converting Other Units
Fuel Consumption
Flight Computers
Plotter

PILOTAGE 8-9

DEAD RECKONING 8-11

The Wind Triangle or Vector Analysis

FLIGHT PLANNING 8-13

Assembling Necessary Material
Weather Check
Use of the Airport/Facility Directory
Airplane Flight Manual or Pilot's Operating Handbook

CHARTING THE COURSE 8-15

Steps in Charting the Course

FILING A VFR FLIGHT PLAN 8-17

RADIO NAVIGATION 8-18

Very High Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range (VOR)
Using the VOR
Tracking with Omni
Tips on Using the VOR
Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)
GPS & LORAN

CHAPTER 9 AEROMEDICAL INFORMATION:

OBTAINING A MEDICAL CERTIFICATE 9-1

HEALTH FACTORS AFFECTING PILOT PERFORMANCE 9-2

Alcohol
Fatigue
Anxiety
Stress
Emotion
Tobacco

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH AFFECT PILOT PERFORMANCE 9-3

Hypoxia
Hyperventilation in Flight
Middle Ear Discomfort or Pain
Spatial Disorientation and Illusions in Flight
Motion Sickness
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Decompression Sickness After Scuba Diving
Vision in Flight

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